Paratyphoid fever is caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It is most often spread through consumption of water or food that has been contaminated by the feces of a recently infected person or a person without symptoms who carries the disease. Transmission through sexual contact, especially among men who have sex with men, has been reported, but is rare. The risk of getting paratyphoid fever is greatest among international travelers. Symptoms include fever up to 104°F (40°C) by the third to fourth day of illness, headache, tiredness, and anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. Antibiotic therapy shortens the infection time and reduces the risk for serious complications. Typhoid vaccine is recommended for travelers to areas where there is an increased risk of exposure to typhoid and paratyphoid fever.
Information for the General Public
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Coalition Against Typhoid
- Food and Water Safety
- Travelers' Health